Thursday, May 21, 2020

Compare And Contrast Hester And Dimmesdale - 1771 Words

French poet Jean De La Fontaine once said, â€Å"Nothing weighs on us so heavily as a secret does.† Set in the harsh Puritan community of seventeenth-century Boston, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter is a tale of a woman named Hester Prynne who is involved in an affair scandal. As a result she is punished by the relentless society and is ordered to bear a scarlet â€Å"A† on her bosom for the remainder of her life which stands for adulterer. However, the mystery as to who the father is of her newborn baby, Pearl would remain a mystery for seven years. One of the town’s most renowned figures, their beloved minister Arthur Dimmesdale proves to be a true exhibit of Mr. Fontaine’s saying since he is the illicit lover of Hester and is Pearl’s†¦show more content†¦Hester’s scarlet letter is a piece of clothing, the â€Å"SCARLET LETTER, so fantastically embroidered and illuminated upon her bosom† (Hawthorn 51). Her int erpretation of the extremity of her sins is one of self composure and calm. She views her sins solely as a violation in the natural order of the environment and therefore cannot even perceive her sin as being evil except through outside influence. Dimmesdale on the other hand, has a scarlet letter carved in his chest. This is revealed when Dimmesdale was giving his revelation, in which â€Å"he tore away the ministerial band from before his breast. It was revealed!† (Hawthorn 232). Dimmesdale s personal interpretation as to the extremity of his own sins is a violation of God s law, which is the law that he is totally dedicated to and supported by. Dimmesdale s interpretation of his sin is much more severe than Hester s, it is a violation and direct contradiction of his own self consciousness and physical existence. Therefore the appearance of his A, even though it is never directly described in the novel, must be powerful, broken, and brutally dishonest (...a ghastly rapture; Hawthorne pg.95). Since the Scarlet Letter on Hester is visible to the public, she was criticized and looked down on. â€Å"This women has brought shame upon us all, and ought to die† (Hawthorn 49) is said by a female in the marketplace talking about Hester. She becomes a stronger person through living this hard life.Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Scarlet Letter 746 Words   |  3 PagesChapter 8: What is the purpose of Hester and Mistress Hibben’s interactions? What does it say about Hester? Chapter 9: What two contrasting images does the town hold about Chillingworth? How were they brought about? Chapter 10: From the context of the chapter, what can readers infer is on Dimmesdale’s chest? Chapter 11: In what ways, can the reader infer, does Dimmesdale incorporate his suffering into his sermons? Chapter 12: Compare the internal suffering of Dimmesdale to Hester’s suffering. Who isRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne830 Words   |  4 PagesHawthorne summarizes Hester Prynne’s perspective of the forest in one phrase. Early in the book, as Hester leaves prison, Hawthorne describes the forest as â€Å"dark, inscrutable†¦ open to [Hester], where the wilderness of her nature might assimilate itself with a people whose customs and life were alien from the law that had condemned her† (75). Hawthorne explains Hester’s connection to the evil, isolated, and free forest, which serves as the location for her conversations with Pearl, Dimmesdale, and ChillingsworthRead More Greatest Sinner in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter Essay1267 Words   |  6 Pagesnot take responsibility for it. In the book The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, perhaps the greatest sinner was Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale.    Many of Hawthornes works center around what is right or wrong, and the consequences of breaking the basic links between humans by committing acts of sin (Brown). In this book, Reverend Dimmesdale is Hester Prynnes secret lover, with whom he shares his sin, the sin of adultery. It is ironic that dispite Dimmesdales profession, he commits thisRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1541 Words   |  7 PagesNathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter follows young adulteress Hester Prynne as she struggles with her sin and subsequent isolation from Puritan society, while Walt Whitman’s Oh Captain! My Captain! chronicles a ship’s bittersweet journey towards a port without its captain. Both texts are products of the American Romantic era, which lasted from the 1830s to 1860s, and characterized a time period of particularly emotional and contemplative literature. Hawthorne and Whitman display a sense of nostalgiaRead MoreNature And Character Of The Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1424 Words   |  6 Pagesnature, to a person’s overall character and how they are to be perceived. Pearl, Hester, and Dimmesdale have their own distinct interactions with nature which therefore suggests different characteristics that can be related to their nature. Firstly, Pearl’s character is the most essential example that demonstrates different characteristics that can be exhibited by specific interactions with nature. While Dimmesdale and Hester are talking in the woods with each other, â€Å"The great black forest--stern asRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne1180 Words   |  5 Pagesclockwork of Nature does not stop for any Man. In the classic novel, The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Dimmesdale conceals an abominable truth. Avoiding subjugation to the conservative Puritans Society rule, the reverend feigned obliviousness all the while Hester, the person he committed adultery with, fearlessly bared her shame upon her bosom. The society held Dimmesdale to a higher standard; as a result, their influences hindered his ability to take responsibility for his actions. TheRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Scarlet Letter 1917 Words   |  8 Pagesmay be unfamiliar to him. He possesses some of the qualities of another fictional character, written about over two centuries before him. Hester Prynne is marked by her scarlet letter, giving people a preconceived notion about who she is, similar to Harry’s iconic scar. She also puts others before herself, including those who had betrayed her trust (Dimmesdale), similar to Harry saving his enemy Draco from being engulfed in flame in the seventh installment of the series. These acts of selflessnessRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1397 Words   |  6 Pagesthe consequences are not as extreme as the puritans; the acceptance might as well be equivalent when looking through the eyes of our society. The work of the three literary critics display a precise interpretation of the characters Chillingworth, Dimmesdale, and Prynne as they are individually and how they are in unique peculiar with everyone around them. Literary critic Evans Smith wrote â€Å"Refiguring Revelations† a literary criticism of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Evans Smith began hisRead MoreSimilarities and Differences Between Anne Hutchinson and Hester Prynne1607 Words   |  7 Pagesand Hester Prynne While many people may feel that Anne Hutchinson has nothing in common with Hester Pyrnne they actually more alike than most people would think. Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of â€Å"The Scarlet Letter,† used many references to Anne Hutchinson in his book. During his life, he wrote a sketch of Hutchinson thus portraying his interest towards her and the characteristics of her life. It could be accurate to say that Anne Hutchinson was used as a guide to make the character of Hester PrynneRead MoreHistory Notes3525 Words   |  15 Pagesis higher level reading, but I urge you to do as much as you can with the novel independently – push yourself. The reading becomes easier as you adapt to Hawthorne’s language and style. Chapter 1 1.Hawthorne establishes a contrast between the darkness of the Puritans and the beauty of the rose. Examine the descriptions of the Puritans, the prison, and the prison door. What does Hawthorne imply about the nature of human beings by his emphasis on the early establishment of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Who Fouled Up the Election Essay - 947 Words

I had read a story long time ago in which the main character, attacked by someone at night, wonders about who might have assaulted him even though he had no enemy but concludes that everyone around him could have reason to hurt him. The UCPN (Maoist) finds itself in that character’s predicament after the recent election debacle. But there is a major difference between the story character and Maoist leaders: The former quietly pondered while the latter have been making hue and cry about domestic and foreign players playing foul in the election. So much so that the Maoists have announced that they would boycott CA II if their complaint about the election fraud were not properly addressed. The election turned out to be a big shock for the†¦show more content†¦The domestic players are known: The Nepali Congress and the CPN (UML). The usual external suspects are India and Western countries. Of course, India prodded Nepal to go for the polls at the earliest and helped organize them with equipment and materials. But it apparently did not try to influence the outcome as such. India did not help Madheshi parties, even though Rajendra Mahato, the Sadbhavana Party leader, has said their defeat was India’s defeat. There is no indication, let alone proof, that Western countries tried to shape the election result. Why should they? They are sympathetic to the Maoist proposal to carve Nepal into an ethnic federal state. And they do not have the kind of network India has in Nepal to influence Nepalese elections, even if they wanted. Let us stretch the net and include China as a potential suspect because it is wary about the ethnic division of states in a federal Nepal. But Beijing would not want to defeat the ideologically closest kin that is also most sympathetic to its most vital interest in Nepal: Control anti-China activities of Tibetan refugees. Put it differently, the conspiracy by national and foreign elements does not wash. That leaves voters disaffection as the only valid and overwhelming reason behind the Maoist electoral meltdown. As the largest party in the CA I, the Maoists could not deliver good government and a new constitution. Government was corrupt and ineffective and the constitutionShow MoreRelatedBerlusconis Struggles Essay2080 Words   |  9 Pagesanalysis of Berlusconi’s government reveals three issues affecting Italy: the garbage pick-up strike in Naples, immigration, and personal scandals. An analysis shows the causes, repercussions and responses to the issues. Silvio Berlusconi was born in Milan on September 29, 1936. According to BBC News, he started out selling vacuum cleaners (â€Å"Profile: Silvio Berlusconi†). He is now a powerful Italian figure who owns three major television networks, newspapers, and the football club AC Milan (SamuelsRead MoreHitler: Speech of 19412031 Words   |  9 Pagesthe initial start of World War two. Many in the world at this time saw the issues that Hitler and the country of Germany proposed, and as many had feared, Germany began to take action. The exigencies which lead up to this speech are many. Hitler was born on April 20TH 1889 and grew up as a child in Braunau am Inn,  . His childhood had a large effect on his psyche and his beliefs. When he was a child, he was beat by his father on a regular basis, which possibly led to his volatile and angry personalityRead MoreMexican-American3148 Words   |  13 Pagesadditionally Là ¡zaro Cà ¡rdenas was a consummate student of history seeking to understand and learn about all the national and international historical underpinnings of Mexico and the world. When Cà ¡rdenas was young he sought to become a teacher but was fouled in his plan by being drawn fully into the politics and military of Mexico, at a time when Mexico was in serious transition. (Wikipedia 2009, â€Å"Là ¡zaro Cà ¡rdenas†) The Mexican Revolution drew Cà ¡rdenas, as it did many others into service of the new governmentRead MoreHall of Fame Steroids Paper3060 Words   |  13 PagesFame is in ant icipation for new members. An election is held each year, no later than January 15th, for players to be inducted into the Hall of Fame. The electors from BBWAA consist of retired baseball players, which have been active writers for the BBWAA for at least ten years. These writers are able to select up to ten candidates on each year’s ballot. The ballot consists of candidates which have to meet requirements before being eligible for election. Requirements such as, retired players mustRead MoreThe Essentials of Project Management65719 Words   |  263 Pagesneed to manage at least one project. Perhaps you will have to set up a market research project for your company or arrange an exhibition or other event. Occasional projects might include anything from managing the relocation of a company to organizing a pop festival, from choosing and installinga complex new computer system to conducting a school outward bound expedition, from a do-it-yourself building project to running an election campaign. Most new ventures falling into this occasional projectRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 Pagesclearly under enormous stress. To maintain business growth and a sustained economy, it is essential for managers to understand and find solutions for these and other fundamental wide-ranging issues. The bursting of the high-tech bubble both in many start-up companies and in major segments of established firms dissipated many entrepreneurial efforts and the large sums of money that were spent to create organizations that never earned a profit and were often hugely unsuccessful as business entities. However

My Riding Trip in the Mountains Free Essays

My Riding Trip in the Mountains One day in April I was playing games in my room and my dad asks me if I want to go to the mountains to ride four wheelers and dirt bikes, and I said yes. So me and my dad walked up to the garage and put the trailer on the truck. The next day was Thursday and I had to load everything on to the trailer and into the truck. We will write a custom essay sample on My Riding Trip in the Mountains or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first thing I had to load up was the clothes, sheets, blankets, tooth brushes, tooth paste, and a couple towels. Then I had to load up the two four wheelers and 3 dirt bikes that we brought. The first four wheeler I had to load up, I had to put in the back of the truck. So I went down to the first garage and got the four wheeler and brought it up to the trailer. Then I went in to the first garage and got the little yellow ramp sand put them in the back of the trailer. Then I got the big wooden ramps and set them up to where I could ride the four wheeler up on to the trailer. Then I rode the four wheeler up onto the trailer to the beginning of the yellow ramps. I got off to get the big ramps and set them up so that I could ride the four wheeler from the trailer to the truck. Then I rode the four wheeler up the ramps and into the truck. The next thing I loaded up was the other four wheeler. So I rode it up the ramps and into the trailer and twisted it side ways. After that I loaded up the yz 125 and twisted it side ways and did the same for the other two dirt bikes. I put the gate on the trailer, loaded up the gas cans, two cycle oil and oil and we were ready to begin our 3 hour ride to the mountains. At about 5:00 we began our journey to the mountains and it was a long boring ride. We arrived at the lodge around 8:30 because of traffic. When we got there we dot our blankets and clothes and went inside for the night. When we got in we each picked a room and put our stuff in it and went back into the living room and watched T. V. As about an hour passed we all went in our rooms and went to bed so we could go riding the next morning. The next morning some unexpected people came to the lodge. There names were brad and jess, and they had four wheelers in the back of their truck. Bra and jess unloaded their four wheelers while we unloaded ours then we went riding. We rode for hours, we went to a bunch of hill climbs, and we crossed a creek twice. We rode 20 miles away from the lodge into Orvinston where we got caught in a parade. So we started to head back towards the lodge and came to the first creek crossing. Brad went first, jess went next, and my dad went third, and I went after my dad but I laid my dirt bike over in the creek because I hit a big slippery rock. Luckily we had a tow rope in the four wheeler. I tied one en of the rope to the rack of brads four wheeler and the other end to my handle bars of my dirt bike and we tried to pop start it. The first couple of times it didn’t work but the fifth time it did so I untied the rope and ran all of the water out of the air box. I noticed that the whole crew was following behind mend then I came to the second creek crossing. I was scarred to go across at first but I did any way and every one followed behind me. I ended up leading the way back to the way back to the lodge, where we ate lunch and rested for about an hour. At about 2:00 that day we back out for another ride. We went up a couple of hill climbs and rode a lot of roads to get to a big mud pit. I rode through it a couple of times on a little four wheeler and got cocky. Bra asked me if I wanted to try his 600 grizzly and I did I planed across it twice and then brad yelled hit it with the throttle pinned, and I did just that. The next thing I knew the four wheeler flipped heals over head and landed on top of me. My helmet flew off and I instantly pushed the four wheeler of me with my feet. I was knocked out for a few seconds and I woke up under water. I managed to get my self up on to my feet and all that I saw was brad running through the water to see if I was ok. The four wheeler was lying on its side. I helped brad push it back over and start it back up. The four wheeler started right up and brad rode it out of the mud pit. I walked out of the mud pit and got on my dirt bike. My helmet was wet so I strapped it to brads four wheeler and we rode back to the lodge. Before I knew it our time to ride was over. We stayed one more night and packed everything up the next morning. Brad had one more thing to do before we left and that was to put a tree stand up for hunting season and I went with him to help him. That took about an hour and when we got back to the lodge every one was ready to leave. Brad locked all of the doors and the gate and we got in the truck and left. That was the end of my riding trip to the mountains. How to cite My Riding Trip in the Mountains, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Louisiana Purchase Essays - Great Plains, Midwestern United States

Louisiana Purchase Several great American Statesmen were pivotal in shaping and molding the government of the United States. History has since forgotten some of these founding fathers. The ones remembered throughout history are those we hold up for their accomplishments. Thomas Jefferson is one of the American Statesmen that stands out from the rest as being one of the greatest contributors to our present form of government. Historian Robert Tucker described Jefferson's life as being a paradox. He was a slave holder that was not necessarily in favor of this form of servitude. He also associated himself with the yeoman farmer, yet he traveled in company with a cosmopolitan flair. So it is to this President that we look to as he faced one of his greatest dilemmas. Jefferson, the third President of the United States, remembered primarily for two great accomplishments: he authored the Declaration of Independence and made the greatest land acquisition in our nation's history, the Louisiana Purchase. Both subjects, have been written about extensively, yet one question persists: did Thomas Jefferson exceed his fiduciary duty to the Constitution of the United States when he started the proceedings that led to the Louisiana Purchase? Thomas Jefferson was a pragmatic, articulate, and, at times, capricious leader of a young nation that had recently gained its freedom from the monarchical Great Britain. Jefferson, a Democratic Republican, made his ascension to the presidency at a time when the Federalist Party was in decline. The Louisiana Purchase would bring a great deal of discomfort to the Party. The only opposition to the purchase would consequently be the Federalist Party which, ironically, had always been in favor of a broad construction of the Constitution. The broad constructionist believed that the Constitution held implied powers to the central government. The people who interpreted the Constitution in this fashion backed the notion of strong centralization of power. The strict constructionist, like Jefferson, believed that if something in the Constitution was not described then it was unconstitutional. They also feared the abuse of power obtainable by the central government by a broad interpretation of the Constitution. Since 1493, France and Spain alternately held the Louisiana Territory. Towards the end of the 18th century the jurisdiction of the territory was under Spanish rule. New troubles were brewing on the European continent and the Americans feared that the Louisiana Territory would fall into the hands of the British. This would place the British on three sides of the Americans and they were prepared to go to war to avoid this. The Spaniards, uncertain of their British ally and fearing an insurrection from within the Louisiana Territory, signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty with the Americans in 1795. Under terms of the treaty, Americans were allowed to deposit goods for overseas shipment at the port of New Orleans free of duty. The Spanish also ceded control of the Ohio River Valley to the Americans. This pleased the majority of Americans who were in favor of westward expansion, many of who were by now settling illegally in the Louisiana Territory. Securing the Mississippi River for commercial purposes was of the greatest importance to most Americans at the time. The desired peace of the country to be protected from outside interference was also the goal of those in favor of expansion. In 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French government and assumed control of France and her colonies. Bonaparte was anxious to build a western empire, perhaps to make up for his previous losses in Egypt. Bonaparte saw the conquest of the Caribbean island of Santo Domingo as his first step in his western expansion efforts. From Santo Domingo the French could support troops that they intended to post in New Orleans. By early 1801 American whites made up more than half of the population in upper Louisiana. In 1802 the first migration of Americans west of the Mississippi River begun and by now the Americans looked to wrest the Louisiana Territory away from the Spanish. To this dream of conquest of the Spaniards by Americans is to what Jefferson responded. He was not alone in his supposition of the need for expansion. Indeed, the one area that Jefferson and his

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Free sample - The Importance of MBA Degree. translation missing

The Importance of MBA Degree. The Importance of MBA DegreeThe field of business management and administration comprises specific areas such as marketing, accounting, operations management etc. It’s my firm belief that successful business can’t do without employees possessing high level of proficiency and experience. Thus, I am convinced that it is MBA degree that provides great opportunities for aspired students with profound knowledge and potentials. MBA programs have significantly proved to lay the robust foundations of comprehensive business awareness necessary for ambitious, dependable, result-aimed leaders. Owing to the fact that the sphere of my knowledge application was and is still tightly connected with business management, I deeply realize that MBA is what I’m striving to obtain in order to further accumulate, cultivate and advance the attainments I’ve already got. Right after college I got down to work in the financial services industries namely at Citigroup, Investment Banking. By nature I am hard-working and willing to learn, so in this tough time I had to collect all my efforts not to let my team down. Because there were company staff cuts only two executives became to be responsible for the work done – my manager and me. My accountability, courage and rigor appeared to be the features which helped me successfully cope with the overwork and deadlines. The senior management decisions depended on my analyses and reports which needed to be accurate and faultless. Thus, efficiently and effectively performing my duties I managed to earn respect and become trustw orthy in the eyes of my colleagues. My further plans were conditioned by the desire to broaden the horizons of my activity in business. Moreover, my sense of responsibility was enhanced considering that I was a bread-winner in the family and the fact of my legal stay in the US only through the work visa was to some extent a challenge but I was persistent in reaching my aims. In June 2009 I became the member of Blueprint by Ronke (BbR) Event Management and thus was involved in event planning and management business. Such field of business presupposes active, initiative, creative and reliable people able both to organize and control team work, at the same time develop cohesion, unity and integrity among the members. My first project was concerned with showcasing diverse talents of different genres and I wanted to emphasize the many-faceted surrounding community and promote young artists. In addition, this event served financial contribution to the organization Link a Child focused on help for African children in need. I pursued high-standard show which could attract versatile individuals both the performers and professionals from music and media industry. It was a considerable step for me on the way of my career growth and development of supervising qualities along with previous experience as an executive. I was able to apply my managing skills to display contrast and individuality of people with varied flairs.

Monday, March 2, 2020

List of Poisons and the Relative Toxicity of Chemicals

List of Poisons and the Relative Toxicity of Chemicals This is a list or table of chemicals that can kill you. Some of these poisons are common and some are rare. Some you need in order to live, while others you should avoid at all costs. Note that the values are median lethal values for an average human. Real-life toxicity depends on your size, age, gender, weight, route of exposure and many other factors. This list just offers a glimpse at a range of chemicals and their relative toxicity. Basically, all chemicals are poisonous. It just depends on the amount! List of Poisons This table is organized from least deadly to most deadly: Chemical Dose Type Target water 8 kg inorganic nervous system lead 500 g inorganic nervous system alcohol 500 g organic kidney/liver ketamine 226 g drug cardiovascular table salt 225 g inorganic nervous system ibuprofen (e.g., Advil) 30 g drug kidney/liver caffeine 15 g biological nervous system paracetamol (e.g., Tylenol) 12 g drug kidney/liver aspirin 11 g drug kidney/liver amphetamine 9 g drug nervous system nicotine 3.7 g biological nervous system cocaine 3 g biological cardiovascular methamphetamine 1 g drug nervous system chlorine 1 g element cardiovascular arsenic 975 mg element digestive system bee sting venom 500 mg biological nervous system cyanide 250 mg organic causes cell death aflatoxin 180 mg biological kidney/liver mamba venom 120 mg biological nervous system black widow venom 70 mg biological nervous system formaldehyde 11 mg organic causes cell death ricin (castor bean) 1.76 mg biological kills cells VX (nerve gas) 189 mcg organophosphate nervous tetrodotoxin 25 mcg biological nervous system mercury 18 mcg element nervous system botulinum (botulism) 270 ng biological nervous tetanospasmin (tetanus) 75 ng biological nervous system Poisons: Lethal vs Toxic Looking at the list of poisons, you might be tempted to think lead is safer than salt or bee sting venom is safer than cyanide. Looking at the lethal dose can be misleading because some of these chemicals are cumulative poisons (e.g., lead) and others are chemicals your body naturally detoxifies in small amounts (e.g., cyanide). Individual biochemistry is also important. While it might take half a gram of bee venom to kill the average person, a much lower dose would cause anaphylactic shock and death if youre allergic to it. Some poisons are actually necessary for life, such as water and salt. Other chemicals serve no known biological function and are purely toxic, such as lead and mercury. Most Common Poisons in Real Life While its unlikely youll be exposed to tetrodotoxin unless you eat improperly prepared fugu (a dish prepared from pufferfish), some poisons routinely cause problems. These include: Pain medicine (over the counter or prescription)Sedative and antipsychotic drugsAntidepressantsCardiovascular drugsHousehold cleaners (particularly when they are mixed)Alcohol (both grain alcohol and types not intended for human consumption)PesticidesInsect, arachnid, and reptile venomAnticonvulsantsPersonal care productsWild mushroomsFood poisoning

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The restructuring of toyota,nissan and ford in the global auto market Research Paper

The restructuring of toyota,nissan and ford in the global auto market - Research Paper Example In the outer fringe the supply chain systems consist of the third tier that generally focus on the delivery of certain parts to the assemblers or the tier two supplying units for the automobile companies. Toyota like all other large automobile companies revolutionized herein to create and sustain specialized supplying units that would only focus on supplying of a specialized or certain unit to the assembly centers. Dependency on a specialized supplying partner for delivery of needed components made it possible for the company to effectively initiate the ‘Just-in-Time’ quality system in its production methodologies (â€Å"The machine that ran too hot†). Toyota in terms of selecting the most able supplier to supply automobile parts to its assembly units located round the world works on a set of training and development activities to enhance its relationship with the supply chain units. Through the training and development functions the management of Toyota focuses o n making the supply chain units understands the need for supply of quality materials on time so as to effectively meet the objectives of the concern in times of changing competitive business and social environment. Maintenance of effective relationships tends to build long term commitment from its specialized supply chain units (Tsai, Chen and Yang 9-10; Roh 134). Restructuring activities pertaining to the ambit of global supply chain activities for automobile company Toyota relate to aligning a range of key supplier bodies that would contribute to the delivery of common parts for all its vehicles produced across the globe. This strategy is aimed at reduction in the number of varieties relating to same parts required for the same category of vehicles thereby standardizing on the quality of the supplies. Toyota in an example has focused on reducing the number of radiators sought from 100 to 21 through a system of closed networking and monitoring activities of its suppliers groups. Th is strategy further contributes in the reduction of overall cost of operations and supply chain functions for the company (â€Å"Suppliers key to Toyota restructure†). Restructuring plans for Toyota relating to the development of relationship with the supply chain units consisted of not only maintaining sustained relationship activities both in an online fashion and also through the enhancement of training and information sharing programs but also through other strategic activities. The set of other strategic activities related to Toyota’s new supply chain mechanism functionaries relate to the formation of effective joint venture relationships with key supply chain units. Through effective joint venture operations Toyota focuses on gaining a total control over the entire gamut of supply chain functions related to the supply of individual key parts to the assembly mechanisms and also in enhancing its dealer networks for augmenting sales of its vehicles in foreign countr ies (Gupta, Wakayama and Rangan 135). The above analysis for restructuring initiatives related to the supply chain functions for Toyota reflect that the company has taken resort to the dimensions of Lean Supply Chain strategies. Through the use of Lean Supply